Used in everything from baking to sauce making to meat and vegetable cookery, lemons bring their own tangy flavor and bright aroma, while actually enhancing a dish's other flavors. Lemon is said to be a "flavor catalyst," meaning that it interacts with the taste buds so that the flavors that follow are more pronounced.
Another variety, called the Meyer lemon, is quite small and significantly sweeter than the ordinary lemon varieties. In addition to being smaller, the Meyer lemon is also more fragile, making it unsuitable for large-scale commercial distribution. They tend to be found at farmers' markets — and in people's yards.
While the fruits themselves do not do well when frozen, the lemon peel can be removed and frozen, then used later in recipes that call for lemon zest.
Zest is the shiny, yellow outermost layer of the peel, which contains powerful flavor compounds. The white part of the peel just beneath the zest is quite bitter and shouldn't be used. Here's a video on zesting and juicing lemons.
Cooking with Lemons:
For example, the acid will help dissolve connective tissues in meat, which is why lemon juice is commonly used in marinades — it helps tenderize tougher cuts of meat. But be careful not to overdo it: too much acid, or marinating for too long, can have the opposite effect, causing the muscle fibers to get tougher.
The acid in lemon juice can also curdle milk, and while it can cause green vegetables to turn a drab olive color, it will help vegetables such as potatoes and turnips maintain their white color.