Caramelization is a culinary phenomenon that occurs when carbohydrates like sugar are heated to temperatures of 300°F or higher, causing them to turn brown.
Caramelization is related to the Maillard reaction
, where proteins in meat turn brown when heated.
Caramelization is the principle that makes toast look toasty and turns pale white potatoes into crispy, golden-brown French fries
.See Also: How to Caramelize Onions